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The Russian Folktale by Vladimir Yakovlevich Propp

Author: Vladimir Yakovlevich Propp
Publsiher: Wayne State University Press
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2012-09-12
ISBN 10: 9780814337219
ISBN 13: 081433721X
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL
The Russian Folktale by Vladimir Yakovlevich Propp Book Review:

Vladimir Propp is the Russian folklore specialist most widely known outside Russia thanks to the impact of his 1928 book Morphology of the Folktale-but Morphology is only the first of Propp's contributions to scholarship. This volume translates into English for the first time his book The Russian Folktale, which was based on a seminar on Russian folktales that Propp taught at Leningrad State University late in his life. Edited and translated by Sibelan Forrester, this English edition contains Propp's own text and is supplemented by notes from his students. The Russian Folktale begins with Propp's description of the folktale's aesthetic qualities and the history of the term; the history of folklore studies, first in Western Europe and then in Russia and the USSR; and the place of the folktale in the matrix of folk culture and folk oral creativity. The book presents Propp's key insight into the formulaic structure of Russian wonder tales (and less schematically than in Morphology, though in abbreviated form), and it devotes one chapter to each of the main types of Russian folktales: the wonder tale, the 'novellistic' or everyday tale, the animal tale, and the cumulative tale. Even Propp's bibliography, included here, gives useful insight into the sources accessible to and used by Soviet scholars in the third quarter of the twentieth century. Propp's scholarly authority and his human warmth both emerge from this well-balanced and carefully structured series of lectures. An accessible introduction to the Russian folktale, it will serve readers interested in folklore and fairy-tale studies in addition to Russian history and cultural studies.

An Anthology of Russian Folktales

Author: Jack V. Haney
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 376
Release: 2014-12-18
ISBN 10: 1317476905
ISBN 13: 9781317476900
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

This anthology gathers a broad selection of Russian folktales, legends, and anecdotes, and includes helpful features that make them more accessible and engaging for English-language readers. Editor Jack V. Haney has selected some of the best tales from his seven-volume 'Complete Russian Folktale' collection and added examples of anecdotes and the long 'serial tales' told in the far north.The 114 tales included here represent every genre found in the Russian tradition. They date from the eighteenth through the twentieth centuries and come from all geographic regions of the Russian-speaking world. The collection is enhanced by a detailed introduction to the folktale and its types, brief introductions to each grouping of tales, head notes with interesting background for individual tales, and a glossary explaining Russian terms.

Theory and History of Folklore

Author: Vladimir I︠A︡kovlevich Propp
Publsiher: Manchester University Press
Total Pages: 252
Release: 1984
ISBN 10: 9780719014611
ISBN 13: 0719014611
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Russian Fairy Tales

Author: Aleksandr Afanas'ev
Publsiher: Pantheon
Total Pages: 672
Release: 2013-01-02
ISBN 10: 0307829766
ISBN 13: 9780307829764
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Vladimir Propp Morphology Of The Folktale Ebook Download Torrent

The most comprehensive collection of classic Russian tales available in English introduces readers to universal fairy-tale figures and to such uniquely Russian characters such as Koshchey the Deathless, Baba Yaga, the Swan Maiden, and the glorious Firebird. Beautifully illustrated, the more than 175 tales culled from a landmark multi-volume collection by the outstanding Russian ethnographer Aleksandr Afanas'ev reveal a rich, robust world of the imagination. Translated by Norbert Guterman Illustrated by Alexander Alexeieff With black-and-white illustrations throughout Part of the Pantheon Fairy Tale and Folklore Library

Marvelous Geometry

Author: Jessica Tiffin
Publsiher: Wayne State University Press
Total Pages: 264
Release: 2009-04-09
ISBN 10: 9780814335727
ISBN 13: 0814335721
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Explores self-consciousness and metafictional awareness in modern fairy tale and its expression across literary fairy tale, popular fairy tale, and fairy-tale film.

Red Riding Hood for All Ages

Author: Sandra L. Beckett
Publsiher: Wayne State University Press
Total Pages: 244
Release: 2008
ISBN 10: 9780814333068
ISBN 13: 0814333060
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A global study of modern adaptations for readers of all ages of Little Red Riding Hood.

Cruelty and Laughter

Author: Simon Dickie
Publsiher: University of Chicago Press
Total Pages: 362
Release: 2011-12
ISBN 10: 0226146189
ISBN 13: 9780226146188
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A rollicking review of popular culture in 18th century Britain this text turns away from sentimental and polite literature to focus instead on the jestbooks, farces, comic periodicals variety shows and minor comic novels that portray a society in which no subject was taboo and political correctness unimagined.

Baba Yaga

Author: Sibelan Forrester
Publsiher: Univ. Press of Mississippi
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2013-08-13
ISBN 10: 1628467436
ISBN 13: 9781628467437
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Baba Yaga is an ambiguous and fascinating figure. She appears in traditional Russian folktales as a monstrous and hungry cannibal, or as a canny inquisitor of the adolescent hero or heroine of the tale. In new translations and with an introduction by Sibelan Forrester, Baba Yaga: The Wild Witch of the East in Russian Fairy Tales is a selection of tales that draws from the famous collection of Aleksandr Afanas'ev, but also includes some tales from the lesser-known nineteenth-century collection of Ivan Khudiakov. This new collection includes beloved classics such as 'Vasilisa the Beautiful' and 'The Frog Princess,' as well as a version of the tale that is the basis for the ballet 'The Firebird.' The preface and introduction place these tales in their traditional context with reference to Baba Yaga's continuing presence in today's culture--the witch appears iconically on tennis shoes, tee shirts, even tattoos. The stories are enriched with many wonderful illustrations of Baba Yaga, some old (traditional 'lubok' woodcuts), some classical (the marvelous images from Victor Vasnetsov or Ivan Bilibin), and some quite recent or solicited specifically for this collection

International Folkloristics

Propp Morphology Functions

Author: Alan Dundes
Publsiher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
Total Pages: 270
Release: 1999-08-01
ISBN 10: 1461637856
ISBN 13: 9781461637851
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL
Vladimir Propp Morphology Of The Folktale Ebook Download

International folkloristics is a worldwide discipline in which scholars study various forms of folklore ranging from myth, folktale, and legend to custom and belief. Twenty classic essays, beginning with a piece by Jacob Grimm, reveal the evolving theoretical underpinnings of folkloristics from its nineteenth century origins to its academic coming-of-age in the twentieth century. Each piece is prefaced by extensive editorial introductions placing them in a historical and intellectual context. The twenty essays presented here, including several never published previously in English, will be required reading for any serious student of folklore.

A Gentleman in Moscow

Author: Amor Towles
Publsiher: Lulu Press, Inc
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2016-08-11
ISBN 10: 1716536510
ISBN 13: 9781716536519
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

'The book moves briskly from one crisp scene to the next, and ultimately casts a spell as captivating as Rules of Civility, a book that inhales you into its seductively Gatsby-esque universe.' —Town & Country From the New York Times bestselling author of Rules of Civility—a transporting novel about a man who is ordered to spend the rest of his life inside a luxury hotel With his breakout debut novel, Rules of Civility, Amor Towles established himself as a master of absorbing, sophisticated fiction, bringing late 1930s Manhattan to life with splendid atmosphere and a flawless command of style. Readers and critics were enchanted; as NPR commented, 'Towles writes with grace and verve about the mores and manners of a society on the cusp of radical change.' A Gentleman in Moscow immerses us in another elegantly drawn era with the story of Count Alexander Rostov. When, in 1922, he is deemed an..

Telling the Bees and Other Customs

Author: Mark Norman
Publsiher: The History Press
Total Pages: 192
Release: 2020-05-13
ISBN 10: 0750995335
ISBN 13: 9780750995337
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Throughout the history of civilisation, traditional crafts have been passed down from hand to skilled hand. Blacksmithing, brewing, beekeeping, baking, milling, spinning, knitting and weaving: these skills held societies together, and so too shaped their folklore and mythology. Exploring the folklore connected with these rural crafts, Telling the Bees examines the customs, superstitions and stories woven into some of the world’s oldest trades. From the spinning of the Fates to the blacksmith’s relationship with the devil, and the symbolism of John Barleycorn to a ritual to create bees from the corpse of a cow – these are the traditions upon which our modern world was built.

The Slave Soul of Russia

Author: Daniel Rancour-Laferriere
Publsiher: NYU Press
Total Pages: 344
Release: 1996-10-01
ISBN 10: 0814774822
ISBN 13: 9780814774823
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Why, asks Daniel Rancour-Laferriere in this controversial book, has Russia been a country of suffering? Russian history, religion, folklore, and literature are rife with suffering. The plight of Anna Karenina, the submissiveness of serfs in the 16th and 17th centuries, ancient religious tracts emphasizing humility as the mother of virtues, the trauma of the Bolshevik revolution, the current economic upheavals wracking the country-- these are only a few of the symptoms of what The Slave Soul of Russia identifies as a veritable cult of suffering that has been centuries in the making. Bringing to light dozens of examples of self-defeating activities and behaviors that have become an integral component of the Russian psyche, Rancour-Laferriere convincingly illustrates how masochism has become a fact of everyday life in Russia. Until now, much attention has been paid to the psychology of Russia's leaders and their impact on the country's condition. Here, for the first time, is a compelling portrait of the Russian people's psychology.

Encyclopedia of Beasts and Monsters in Myth Legend and Folklore

Author: Theresa Bane
Publsiher: McFarland
Total Pages: 428
Release: 2016-05-22
ISBN 10: 147662268X
ISBN 13: 9781476622682
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL
Encyclopedia of Beasts and Monsters in Myth Legend and Folklore Book Review:

“Here there be dragons”—this notation was often made on ancient maps to indicate the edges of the known world and what lay beyond. Heroes who ventured there were only as great as the beasts they encountered. This encyclopedia contains more than 2,200 monsters of myth and folklore, who both made life difficult for humans and fought by their side. Entries describe the appearance, behavior, and cultural origin of mythic creatures well-known and obscure, collected from traditions around the world.

Children and Yiddish Literature From Early Modernity to Post Modernity

Author: Gennady Estraikh,Kerstin Hoge,Krutikov Mikhail
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 187
Release: 2016-05-20
ISBN 10: 1317198794
ISBN 13: 9781317198796
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Vladimir Propp Morphology Of The Folktale Ebook Download Pdf

Children and Yiddish Literature From Early Modernity to Post Modernity Book Review:

Children have occupied a prominent place in Yiddish literature since early modern times, but children’s literature as a genre has its beginnings in the early 20th century. Its emergence reflected the desire of Jewish intellectuals to introduce modern forms of education, and promote ideological agendas, both in Eastern Europe and in immigrant communities elsewhere. Before the Second World War, a number of publishing houses and periodicals in Europe and the Americas specialized in stories, novels and poems for various age groups. Prominent authors such as Yankev Glatshteyn, Der Nister, Joseph Opatoshu, Leyb Kvitko, made original contributions to the genre, while artists, such as Marc Chagall, El Lissitzky and Yisakhar Ber Rybak, also took an active part. In the Soviet Union, meanwhile, children’s literature provided an opportunity to escape strong ideological pressure. Yiddish children’s literature is still being produced today, both for secular and strongly Orthodox communities. This volume is a pioneering collective study not only of children’s literature but of the role played by children in literature.

The Folktale

Author: Stith Thompson
Publsiher: Univ of California Press
Total Pages: 510
Release: 1977
ISBN 10: 9780520033597
ISBN 13: 0520033590
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

As interest in folklore increases, the folktale acquires greater significance for students and teachers of literature. The material is massive and scattered; thus, few students or teachers have accessibility to other than small segments or singular tales or material they find buried in archives. Stith Thompson has divided his book into four sections which permit both the novice and the teacher to examine oral tradition and its manifestation in folklore. The introductory section discusses the nature and forms of the folktale. A comprehensive second part traces the folktale geographically from Ireland to India, giving culturally diverse examples of the forms presented in the first part. The examples are followed by the analysis of several themes in such tales from North American Indian cultures. The concluding section treats theories of the folktale, the collection and classification of folk narrative, and then analyzes the living folklore process. This work will appeal to students of the sociology of literature, professors of comparative literature, and general readers interested in folklore.

The Supergirls

Author: Mike Madrid
Publsiher: Anonim
Total Pages: 323
Release: 2009
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: PSU:000064220376
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A cultural history of comic book heroines. Is their world of fantasy different from our own-- or an alternative saga of modern American women?

Encyclopedia of Russian History

Author: James R. Millar
Publsiher: MacMillan Reference Library
Total Pages: 1828
Release: 2004
ISBN 10: 9780028656977
ISBN 13: 0028656970
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Review: 'This four-volume set features nearly 1,500 entries by experts on all aspects of Russian history, including important biographical figures, geographical areas, ethnographic groups, cultural landmarks, military campaigns, and social issues.'--'The Top 20 Reference Titles of the Year,' American Libraries, May 2004.

Cinderella Across Cultures

Author: Martine Hennard Dutheil de la Rochère,Gillian Lathey,Monika Wozniak
Publsiher: Anonim
Total Pages: 440
Release: 2016-06-01
ISBN 10: 9780814341551
ISBN 13: 0814341551
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Vladimir Propp Morphology Of The Folktale Ebook Download Free

Examines the tale of Cinderella as a fascinating, multilayered, and ever-changing story constantly reinvented in different media and traditions.

Vasilisa The Beautiful and Baba Yaga

Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Strelbytskyy Multimedia Publishing
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2019-10-03
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: PKEY:SMP2300000063813
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Do you have something that someone special once gave you that seems to offer you strength and protection when you need it the most? In 'Vasilisa the Beautiful', the young girl, Vasilisa, was given a special doll on her mother's deathbed. Let's find out more about this story… 'Vasilisa the Beautiful' is a Russian fairytale that features a young girl named Vasilisa and one of the most infamous characters in Russian folklore, Baba Yaga. In this story, the eponymous heroine is pitted against Baba Yaga. Vasilisa the Beautiful is in a collection of Russian folktales known as Russian Fairy Tales or Russian Folk Tales . The stories in this collection were compiled during the 19th century by Alexander Nikolayevich Afanasyev, who has been considered the Russian equivalent of the Grimm Brothers. Illustration by Nataly Ger.

The Irresistible Fairy Tale

Author: Jack Zipes
Publsiher: Princeton University Press
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2012-03-19
ISBN 10: 1400841828
ISBN 13: 9781400841820
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

If there is one genre that has captured the imagination of people in all walks of life throughout the world, it is the fairy tale. Yet we still have great difficulty understanding how it originated, evolved, and spread--or why so many people cannot resist its appeal, no matter how it changes or what form it takes. In this book, renowned fairy-tale expert Jack Zipes presents a provocative new theory about why fairy tales were created and retold--and why they became such an indelible and infinitely adaptable part of cultures around the world. Drawing on cognitive science, evolutionary theory, anthropology, psychology, literary theory, and other fields, Zipes presents a nuanced argument about how fairy tales originated in ancient oral cultures, how they evolved through the rise of literary culture and print, and how, in our own time, they continue to change through their adaptation in an ever-growing variety of media. In making his case, Zipes considers a wide range of fascinating examples, including fairy tales told, collected, and written by women in the nineteenth century; Catherine Breillat's film adaptation of Perrault's 'Bluebeard'; and contemporary fairy-tale drawings, paintings, sculptures, and photographs that critique canonical print versions. While we may never be able to fully explain fairy tales, The Irresistible Fairy Tale provides a powerful theory of how and why they evolved--and why we still use them to make meaning of our lives.

(Redirected from Morphology of the Folk Tale)
Vladimir Propp in 1928
Born29 April 1895
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Died22 August 1970 (aged 75)
Leningrad, Russian SFSR, USSR
OccupationFolklorist, scholar
NationalityRussian, Soviet
SubjectFolklore of Russia, folklore

Vladimir Yakovlevich Propp (Russian: Владимир Яковлевич Пропп; 29 April [O.S. 17 April] 1895 – 22 August 1970) was a Soviet folklorist and scholar who analysed the basic structural elements of Russian folk tales to identify their simplest irreducible structural units.


Vladimir Propp was born on 29 April 1895 in Saint Petersburg to an assimilated Russian family of German descent. His parents, Yakov Philippovich Propp and Anna-Elizaveta Fridrikhovna Propp (née Beisel), were Volga German wealthy peasants from Saratov Governorate. He attended Saint Petersburg University (1913–1918), majoring in Russian and German philology.[1] Upon graduation he taught Russian and German at a secondary school and then became a college teacher of German.

His Morphology of the Folktale was published in Russian in 1928. Although it represented a breakthrough in both folkloristics and morphology and influenced Claude Lévi-Strauss and Roland Barthes, it was generally unnoticed in the West until it was translated in 1958. His morphology is used in media education and has been applied to other types of narrative, be it in literature, theatre, film, television series, games, etc., although Propp applied it specifically to the wonder of fairy tale.

In 1932, Propp became a member of Leningrad University (formerly St. Petersburg University) faculty. After 1938, he chaired the Department of Folklore until it became part of the Department of Russian Literature. Propp remained a faculty member until his death in 1970.[1]

Works in Russian[edit]

His main books are:

  • Morphology of the tale, Leningrad 1928
  • Historical Roots of the wonder tale, Leningrad 1946
  • Russian Epic Song, Leningrad 1955–1958
  • Popular Lyric Songs, Leningrad 1961
  • Russian Agrarian Feasts, Leningrad 1963

He also published some articles, the most important are:

  • The Magical Tree on the tomb
  • Wonderful Childbirth
  • Ritual Laughter in folklore
  • Oedipus in the light of folklore

First printed in specialized reviews, they were republished in Folklore and Reality, Leningrad 1976

Two books were published post mortem:

  • Problems of comedy and laughter, Leningrad 1983
  • The Russian Folktale, Leningrad 1984

The first book remained unfinished, the second one is the edition of the course he gave in Leningrad university.

Translations into English and other languages[edit]

  • Morphology of the Tale was translated into English in 1958 and 1968. It was also translated into Italian and Polish in 1966, French and Romanian in 1970, Spanish in 1971, and German in 1975.
  • Historical Roots of the Wonder Tale was translated into Italian in 1949 and 1972, Spanish in 1974, and French, Romanian and Japanese in 1983.
  • Oedipus in the light of folklore was translated into Italian in 1975.
  • Russian Agrarian Feasts was translated into French in 1987.

Narrative structure[edit]

According to Propp, based on his analysis of 100 folktales from the corpus of Alexander Fyodorovich Afanasyev, there were 31 basic structural elements (or 'functions') that typically occurred within Russian fairy tales. He identified these 31 functions as typical of all fairy tales, or wonder tales [skazka] in Russian folklore. These functions occurred in a specific, ascending order (1-31, although not inclusive of all functions within any tale) within each story. This type of structural analysis of folklore is referred to as 'syntagmatic'. This focus on the events of a story and the order in which they occur is in contrast to another form of analysis, the 'paradigmatic' which is more typical of Lévi-Strauss's structuralist theory of mythology. Lévi-Strauss sought to uncover a narrative's underlying pattern, regardless of the linear, superficial syntagm, and his structure is usually rendered as a binary oppositional structure. For paradigmatic analysis, the syntagm, or the linear structural arrangement of narratives is irrelevant to their underlying meaning.


After the initial situation is depicted, any wonder tale will be composed of a selection of the following 31 functions, in a fixed, consecutive order:[2]

1.ABSENTATION: A member of the hero's community or family leaves the security of the home environment. This may be the hero themselves, or some other relation that the hero must later rescue. This division of the cohesive family injects initial tension into the storyline. This may serve as the hero's introduction, typically portraying them as an ordinary person.

2.INTERDICTION: A forbidding edict or command is passed upon the hero ('don't go there', 'don't do this'). The hero is warned against some action.

3.VIOLATION of INTERDICTION. The prior rule is violated. Therefore, the hero did not listen to the command or forbidding edict. Whether committed by the Hero by accident or temper, a third party or a foe, this generally leads to negative consequences. The villain enters the story via this event, although not necessarily confronting the hero. They may be a lurking and manipulative presence, or might act against the hero's family in his absence.

4.RECONNAISSANCE: The villain makes an effort to attain knowledge needed to fulfill their plot. Disguises are often invoked as the villain actively probes for information, perhaps for a valuable item or to abduct someone. They may speak with a family member who innocently divulges a crucial insight. The villain may also seek out the hero in their reconnaissance, perhaps to gauge their strengths in response to learning of their special nature.

5.DELIVERY: The villain succeeds at recon and gains a lead on their intended victim. A map is often involved in some level of the event.

6.TRICKERY: The villain attempts to deceive the victim to acquire something valuable. They press further, aiming to con the protagonists and earn their trust. Sometimes the villain make little or no deception and instead ransoms one valuable thing for another.

Virtual dj pioneer cdj 2000 skin free download. 7.COMPLICITY: The victim is fooled or forced to concede and unwittingly or unwillingly helps the villain, who is now free to access somewhere previously off-limits, like the privacy of the hero's home or a treasure vault, acting without restraint in their ploy.

8.VILLAINY or LACKING: The villain harms a family member, including but not limited to abduction, theft, spoiling crops, plundering, banishment or expulsion of one or more protagonists, murder, threatening a forced marriage, inflicting nightly torments and so on. Simultaneously or alternatively, a protagonist finds they desire or require something lacking from the home environment (potion, artifact, etc.). The villain may still be indirectly involved, perhaps fooling the family member into believing they need such an item.

9.MEDIATION: One or more of the negative factors covered above comes to the attention of the Hero, who uncovers the deceit/perceives the lacking/learns of the villainous acts that have transpired.

10.BEGINNING COUNTERACTION: The hero considers ways to resolve the issues, by seeking a needed magical item, rescuing those who are captured or otherwise thwarting the villain. This is a defining moment for the hero, one that shapes their further actions and marks the point when they begin to fit their noble mantle.

11.DEPARTURE: The hero leaves the home environment, this time with a sense of purpose. Here begins their adventure.

Vladimir Propp Structuralism

12.FIRST FUNCTION OF THE DONOR: The hero encounters a magical agent or helper (donor) on their path, and is tested in some manner through interrogation, combat, puzzles or more.

13.HERO'S REACTION: The hero responds to the actions of their future donor; perhaps withstanding the rigours of a test and/or failing in some manner, freeing a captive, reconciles disputing parties or otherwise performing good services. This may also be the first time the hero comes to understand the villain's skills and powers, and uses them for good.

14.RECEIPT OF A MAGICAL AGENT: The hero acquires use of a magical agent as a consequence of their good actions. This may be a directly acquired item, something located after navigating a tough environment, a good purchased or bartered with a hard-earned resource or fashioned from parts and ingredients prepared by the hero, spontaneously summoned from another world, a magical food that is consumed, or even the earned loyalty and aid of another.

15.GUIDANCE: The hero is transferred, delivered or somehow led to a vital location, perhaps related to one of the above functions such as the home of the donor or the location of the magical agent or its parts, or to the villain.

16.STRUGGLE: The hero and villain meet and engage in conflict directly, either in battle or some nature of contest.

17.BRANDING: The hero is marked in some manner, perhaps receiving a distinctive scar or granted a cosmetic item like a ring or scarf.

18.VICTORY: The villain is defeated by the hero – killed in combat, outperformed in a contest, struck when vulnerable, banished, and so on.

19.LIQUIDATION: The earlier misfortunes or issues of the story are resolved; object of search are distributed, spells broken, captives freed.

20.RETURN: The hero travels back to their home.

21.PURSUIT: The hero is pursued by some threatening adversary, who perhaps seek to capture or eat them.

22.RESCUE: The hero is saved from a chase. Something may act as an obstacle to delay the pursuer, or the hero may find or be shown a way to hide, up to and including transformation unrecognisably. The hero's life may be saved by another.

23.UNRECOGNIZED ARRIVAL: The hero arrives, whether in a location along their journey or in their destination, and is unrecognised or unacknowledged.

24.UNFOUNDED CLAIMS: A false hero presents unfounded claims or performs some other form of deceit. This may be the villain, one of the villain's underlings or an unrelated party. It may even be some form of future donor for the hero, once they've faced their actions.

25.DIFFICULT TASK: A trial is proposed to the hero – riddles, test of strength or endurance, acrobatics and other ordeals.

26.SOLUTION: The hero accomplishes a difficult task.

27.RECOGNITION: The hero is given due recognition – usually by means of their prior branding.

28.EXPOSURE: The false hero and/or villain is exposed to all and sundry.

29.TRANSFIGURATION: The hero gains a new appearance. This may reflect aging and/or the benefits of labour and health, or it may constitute a magical remembering after a limb or digit was lost (as a part of the branding or from failing a trial). Regardless, it serves to improve their looks.

30.PUNISHMENT: The villain suffers the consequences of their actions, perhaps at the hands of the hero, the avenged victims, or as a direct result of their own ploy.

31.WEDDING: The hero marries and is rewarded or promoted by the family or community, typically ascending to a throne.

Some of these functions may be inverted, such as the hero receives an artifact of power whilst still at home, thus fulfilling the donor function early. Typically such functions are negated twice, so that it must be repeated three times in Western cultures.[3]


He also concluded that all the characters in tales could be resolved into 7 abstract character functions

  1. The villain — an evil character that creates struggles for the hero.
  2. The dispatcher — any character who illustrates the need for the hero's quest and sends the hero off. This often overlaps with the princess's father.
  3. The helper — a typically magical entity that comes to help the hero in their quest.
  4. The princess or prize, and often her father — the hero deserves her throughout the story but is unable to marry her as a consequence of some evil or injustice, perhaps the work of the villain. The hero's journey is often ended when he marries the princess, which constitutes the villain's defeat.
  5. The donor — a character that prepares the hero or gives the hero some magical object, sometimes after testing them.
  6. The hero — the character who reacts to the dispatcher and donor characters, thwarts the villain, resolves any lacking or wronghoods and weds the princess.
  7. The false hero — a Miles Gloriosus figure who takes credit for the hero's actions or tries to marry the princess.[4]

These roles could sometimes be distributed among various characters, as the hero kills the villain dragon, and the dragon's sisters take on the villainous role of chasing him. Conversely, one character could engage in acts as more than one role, as a father could send his son on the quest and give him a sword, acting as both dispatcher and donor.[5]


Propp's approach has been criticized for its excessive formalism (a major critique of the Soviets). One of the most prominent critics of Propp was structuralistClaude Lévi-Strauss, who, in dialog with Propp, argued for the superiority of the paradigmatic over syntagmatic approach.[6] Propp responded to this criticism in a sharply-worded rebuttal: he wrote that Lévi-Strauss showed no interest in empirical investigation.[7]

See also[edit]

Vladimir Propp Morphology Of The Folktale Ebook Download


  1. ^ abPropp, Vladimir. 'Introduction.' Theory and History of Folklore. Ed. Anatoly Liberman. University of Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 1984. pg ix
  2. ^Vladimir Propp, Morphology of the Folk Tale, p. 25, ISBN0-292-78376-0
  3. ^Vladimir Propp, Morphology of the Folk Tale, p. 74, ISBN0-292-78376-0
  4. ^Vladimir Propp, Morphology of the Folk Tale, p 79-80, ISBN0-292-78376-0
  5. ^Vladimir Propp, Morphology of the Folk Tale, p 81, ISBN0-292-78376-0
  6. ^Dundes, Alan. 'Binary Opposition in Myth: The Propp/Levi-Strauss Debate in Retrospect,' Western Folklore, 56.1 (Winter 1997)
  7. ^Vladimir Propp, Theory and History of Folklore (Theory and History of Literature #5)by Vladimir Propp, Ariadna Y. Martin (Translator), Richard P. Martin (Translator), Anatoly Liberman

External links[edit]

  • The Birth of Structuralism from the Analysis of Fairy-Tales – Dmitry Olshansky / Toronto Slavic Quarterly, No. 25
  • The Fairy Tale Generator: generate your own Inaccessible as of 12 Oct 2012, but available via'Archived copy'. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved November 21, 2006.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  • Vladimir Propp (1895-1970) / The Literary Encyclopedia (2008)
  • Assessment of Propp(in German)
  • A Folktale Outline Generator: based on Propp's Morphology
  • The Historical Roots of the Wonder Tale Propp's examination of the origin of specific folktale motifs in customs and beliefs, initiation rites. (in Russian)
  • Linguistic Formalists by C. John Holcombe An interesting essay through the story of Russian Formalism.
  • Biography of Vladimir Propp at the Gallery of Russian Thinkers
  • An XML Markup language based on Propp at the University of Pittsburgh
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